Dyslexia: Basic Facts
- Language based learning disability,
- Neurobiological in origin,
- Difficulty with discriminating sounds within words,
- Difficulty with automatic letters, word recognition.
- Brain imagery studies have found brain of dyslexic develop and function in a different way.
- Difficulty learning to speak,
- Difficulty learning name and sound of letters,
- Difficulty learning to read and spell.
- 85% of population with reading difficulties,
- Occurs in people of all backgrounds and intellectual levels,
- Runs in families.
- Problems with reading, spelling and writing, leading to poor reading fluency and reading comprehension,
- Negative self-image, discouraged.
- With proper help people with dyslexia can learn to read/write,
- Early identification and intervention is key,
- Need to be taught by method that involves several senses (hearing, seeing, touch),
- May need help with emotional issues that arise as a consequence of difficulties in school.
What Science Says
Using a fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) to study the brain activity in children research has confirmed that Dyslexia is neurobiological in origin. Evidence suggests there is a glitch in the neurological wiring to dyslexics that makes reading extremely difficult for them.
Years of research has shown that a multi-sensory language program that uses intensive phonics is the only way to teach dyslexic individuals to read. Multi-Sensory programs practice manipulating phonemes, building vocabulary, increasing comprehension and improving the fluency of reading.
What is Taught
Phonology & Phonological Awareness
Phonology is the study of sounds and how they work within their Environment. Phonological Awareness is the understanding of linguistic structures of words.
Sound-Symbol association must be taught, and mastered, in two directions, visual to auditory and auditory to visual.
Instructions on the six basic syllable types; syllable division rules must be taught in relation to word structure.
A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning in language. Morphology is the study of how morphemes (basewords, suffixes and prefixes) are combined into words in a sentence.
Syntax is the set of principles that dictate the sequence of functions of words in a sentence.
Semantics is the aspect of language concerned with meaning. Instruction in the comprehension of written language is taught.